The Five P's: Partners, Prevention of Pregnancy, Protection from STDs, Practices, and Past History of STDs
Do you have sex with men, women, or both?
In the past 2 months, how many partners have you had sex with?
In the past 12 months, how many partners have you had sex with?
Is it possible that any of your sex partners in the past 12 months had sex with someone else while they were still in a sexual relationship with you?
Prevention of Pregnancy
What are you doing to prevent pregnancy?
Protection from STDs
What do you do to protect yourself from STDs and HIV?
To understand your risks for STDs, I need to understand the kind of sex you have had recently.
Have you had vaginal sex, meaning 'penis in vagina sex'?" If yes, "Do you use condoms: never, sometimes, or always?
Have you had anal sex, meaning 'penis in rectum/anus sex'?" If yes, "Do you use condoms: never, sometimes, or always?
Have you had oral sex, meaning 'mouth on penis/vagina'?
For condom answers:
If "never:" "Why don't you use condoms?
If "sometimes:" "In what situations (or with whom) do you not use condoms?
Past history of STDs
Have you ever had an STD?
Have any of your partners had an STD?
Additional questions to identify HIV and viral hepatitis risk include:
Have you or any of your partners ever injected drugs?
Have any of your partners exchanged money or drugs for sex?
Is there anything else about your sexual practices that I need to know about?
Abstinence and Reduction of Number of Sex Partners
Two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available for females aged 9–26 years to prevent cervical precancer and cancer: the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil) and the bivalent HPV vaccine (Cervarix).
Gardasil also prevents genital warts.
Routine vaccination of females aged 11 or 12 years is recommended with either vaccine, as is catch-up vaccination for females aged 13–26 years.
Gardasil can be administered to males aged 9–26 years to prevent genital warts.
When used consistently and correctly, male latex condoms are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV infection.
Studies show condoms can reduce the risk for other STDs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.
Laboratory studies indicate that the female condom (Reality) is an effective mechanical barrier to viruses, including HIV, and to semen.
Diaphragm use has been demonstrated to protect against cervical gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis.
Topical Microbicides and Spermicides
Studies examining nonspecific topical microbicides for the prevention of HIV and STD have demonstrated that these products are ineffective
Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired.
Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. However, some men have signs or symptoms that appear one to fourteen days after infection. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.
In women, the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild, but most women who are infected have no symptoms. Even when a woman has symptoms, they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods.
Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years.
HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.
If you would like more information or have personal concerns, call CDC-INFO 24 Hours/Day at 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636), 1-888-232-6348 (TTY), in English, en Español
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Important Condom Information:
Latex condoms reduce the risk of trasmitting STIs by providing a barrier against the source of infection. However, they do not completely eliminate the risks of pregnancy and STIs. To get the most protection from a latex condom, use one correctly every time you have sex. There are many STIs. A latex condom can reduce the risk of STI transmission (such as HIV infection (AIDS) and gonorrhea) to or from the penis. However, some STIs (such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes) can also be spread by other sexual contact. For additional information on condoms, STIs, and pregnancy protection, or if you believe you have an STI, contact the IPFW/Parkview Health and Wellness Clinic or public health agency (information below). Condoms are highly effective against pregnancy, less than 2 women in 100 get pregnant during one year of typical correct and consistent use. Other contraceptive methods are more or less effective than condoms. If you have any questions about birth control options, particularly because of health reasons for avoiding pregnancy, discuss with a health care provider.
Latex condoms are intended to prevent pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted infections. Latex condoms reduce the risk of transmitting STIs by providing a barrier against the source of infection. However, they do not completely eliminate the risk of preganancy and STIs.
Directions for Condom Use:
Use a new condom for every sex act. Lesions, pre-ejaculate secretions, semen, vaginal secretions, and blood can all transmit infectious organisms.
Tear open the package carefully. Do not use fingernails, teeth, scissors or anything that can damage the condom.
Before any sexual contact, place the condom on the head of the erect penis. Be sure the rolled up ring is on the outside. And leave space at tip to hold semen when you come.
Squeeze tip gently so no air is trapped inside. Hold tip while you unroll the condom all the way to the base of the erect penis. If the condom doesn't unroll, it may be on backwards, damaged, or too old. Throw it away and start over with a new condom. Avoid spilling semen.
Dispose of a used condom by wrapping it in tissue and throwing it in the trash. Wash your hands and genitals and surrounding areas with soap and water.
Source: Trojan Brand Latex Condoms
An estimated 20% to 25% of college women in the United States have experienced an attempted or complete rape during their college career.
In the United States, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men reported experiencing an attempted or completed rape at some time in their lives.
These numbers underestimate the problem. Many cases are not reported because victims are afraid to tell the police, friends, or family about the abuse.3 Victims also think that their stories of abuse will not be believed and that police cannot help them.3 They may be ashamed or embarrassed. Victims may also keep quiet because they have been threatened with further harm if they tell anyone.
The IPFW Police Department has bi-monthly Rape Aggression Defense classes. The Rape Aggression Defense System (RAD) is a program of realistic, self-defense tactics and techniques. The RAD system is a comprehensive course for women that begins with awareness, prevention, risk reduction, and avoidance, while progressing on to the basics of hands-on defense training. For more information, follow this link: IPFW RAD
Fisher BS, Cullen FT, Turner MG. The sexual victimization of college women. Washington (DC): Department of Justice (US), National Institute of Justice; 2000. Publication No.: NCJ 182369.
Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington (DC): Department of Justice (US); 2000. Publication No.: NCJ 181867. Available from: URL: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/181867.htm.