College of Arts and Sciences

Citations in Bibliographies and Notes

The format for citations in bibliographies and notes is different. Both are explained here.

Books

The essential elements of any bibliographic citation for a book are the following:

  • Author or authors
  • Title of book
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Date of publication

Note the punctuation between the various elements.

Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Footnotes or endnotes differ as follows:

  • The author's first name appears first
  • The place of publication, publisher and date of publication are enclosed in parentheses
  • A page reference is provided

Again, note the punctuation between the various elements.

John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 54.

Periodicals

Turabian makes a distinction between articles which appear in scholarly journals and those which appear in popular magazines and newspapers. You can make the same distinction or follow this format for all. The essential elements for an article citation are:

  • Author or authors
  • Title of article
  • Title of publication (journal, magazine, newspaper)
  • Volume or number of issue, if any
  • Date of publication
  • Page or inclusive pages

Note the punctuation between the various elements.

Jackson, Richard. "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua, New Guinea." Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 175-84.

Footnote or endnote citations differ as follows:

  • The author's first name appears first.
  • Only the page(s) being cited is indicated--as opposed to the inclusive pages of the article.
  • The punctuation changes.

Richard Jackson, "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua, New Guinea," Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 180.

Encyclopedia Articles

Before you cite an article from an encyclopedia, you must determine whether the article is signed or unsigned. Signed articles require much more information in the citation than unsigned articles. As in most citations the formats for notes and bibliography differ.

Signed Article in an Encyclopedia

Bibliography:

Lamar, Howard R., ed. The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. New York: Harper and Row, 1977. S.v. "Billy the Kid," by Gary L. Roberts.

Footnote or Endnote:

Howard R. Lamar, ed. The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. (New York: Harper and Row, 1977, s.v. "Billy the Kid," by Gary L. Roberts.

Unsigned Article in an Encyclopedia

Bibliography:

Encyclopedia Americana. 1975 ed. S.v. "Sumatra."

Footnote or Endnote:

Encyclopedia Americana, 1975 ed., s.v. "Sumatra."

Online Citations (News Sources)

If your source is the online version of a newspaper, journal, or magazine, treat it as a periodical with the following exceptions:

Do not indicate page numbers. There are none.
Some online sources are full text reproductions of the original--usually in PDF format. Treat these as print documents.
Sometimes a file number or other identifying number is provided. Provide it where you would normally place page numbers

Add the phrase "Online edition"

Sengupta, Somini. "Battle Ebbs in Liberian Capital as Rebels Retreat." The New York Times. Online edition (26 June 2003).

Daily news sources that are not online versions of printed publications are treated in the same manner except that the news source replaces the periodical title:

"Angry Liberians Present Bodies of Shelling Victims." FoxNews (26 June 2003).

Web pages that are not daily news sources are a little more difficult, and there is not yet consensus on how to cite them. At the very least there should be a:

  • Title (You may have to create one.)
  • Date (Date the page was created or date accessed)
  • URL in brackets

"Liberia." Accessed 27 June 2003 [http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/li.html].

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